Dr. Fox was the co-discover of the Archaea with Carl Woese. At present the primary focus of the Fox lab is understanding the origins and evolution of the ribosome. In conjunction with this, we are interested in RNA structure and are using 5S rRNA as a model system to understand the constraints on RNA evolution. From a practical perspective 5S rRNA is used as a carrier for the synthesis of RNAs of interest. The Fox group is also exploring how bacteria can adapt to space flight conditions, especially from a planetary protection perspective.