Fernando Penha earned the M.D. degree from University of Itajai Valley (UNIVALI) and then spent seven years at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) for his residency in ophthalmology. He obtained the Ph.D. degree, specializing in vitreous and retina. He has been a Postdoctoral Fellow at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, supervised by Dr. Philip J. Rosenfeld, in the specific field of spectral domain OCT and retinal imaging. The main focus of his research is retinal pharmacotherapy, toxicology, and retinal imaging modalities, mainly SD-OCT on age-related macular degeneration.