My research interests are in the field of comparative and evolutionary biology, with a special interest in functional genomics. This involves studying molecular and physiological differences between organisms, linking genetics and biochemistry, and using these differences to learn more about how animals function. I use functional genomics approaches to understand how organisms, particularly those in extreme environments, adapt (past, present, future). My focus is predominantly on marine organisms, particularly Antarctic biota, including fish and invertebrates. My principal overarching research theme is in assessing the effects of global change, particularly exploring the effects of changes in temperature, ocean acidification and the effects of pollution. I continue to have a sustained focus on molecular adaptation in Antarctic fish. I have key strengths in using ecological genomics approaches to understand organismal responses to environmental shifts in in Antarctic organisms.