ORCID Outreach Meeting and Codefest, May 2014


Barbara McFadden Allen is the executive director of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), a position she has held since 1999. Founded in 1958, the CIC supports inter-university cooperative efforts across fifteen research universities (the members of the Big Ten Athletic Conference and the University of Chicago). She serves on the Steering Committee of the Global Midwest Initiative of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and the boards of the Association of Collaborative Leadership (where she is currently Vice President) and the National Consortium for Continuous Improvement in Higher Education. She received her A.B. and her M.L.S. from the University of Missouri-Columbia.

Urban Andersson has 20 years of experience from working with IT within the academic library world.
Between 1994 and 2007 he worked as System Librarian and IT developer at the University College of Borås, and also held a position as technical coordinator for the Swedish Voyager Library Consortium (GSLG), with a focus on system administration, programming and coordination of several development projects within the consortium, and was also the technical representative for Sweden in the international Voyager user groups. Between 2007 and 2011 he worked as IT Librarian at the University of Gothenburg, with a primary focus on the institutional repository (DSpace) and the publication database, and since 2011 he has been working as IT Librarian and developer at Chalmers University of Technology. He is the primary developer and technical coordinator of Chalmers Publications Library (CPL), as well as the locally developed publication platform, Scigloo.

David Baker is co-founder and Executive Director of Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information (CASRAI). He has over twenty years of experience in research administration and management. He came to the research domain via a tortured path that included directing television commercials, writing screenplays, managing a health research charity and administering databases. His research administration roles have included the design and implementation of grants management databases and software systems as well as the provision of senior advisory services to national and regional governments and foundation funding organizations. He has a strong commitment to, and involvement in, international not-for-profit initiatives on research data standards and systems-interoperability. He is based in Ottawa, Canada. CASRAI is designed to function as a component in the broader national/international strategy on research administration that countries need to have if information on research and innovation is to be able to cross the boundaries between organizations, disciplines and nations.

Rebecca Bryant is Director of Community at ORCID where she leads outreach initiatives to encourage the adoption of ORCID identifiers throughout the scholarly communications community. In this role, she coordinates the diverse ORCID Ambassadors program, provides oversight for the Sloan-funded Adoption and Integration program, and develops resources and communications. She previously served as Assistant Dean in the Graduate College at the University of Illinois where she led a diverse set of operations, leading a diverse set of operations, including graduate career services, postdoctoral affairs, and overseeing academic policies and processes related to doctoral degree completion. Her position involved working with Illinois’s large international student population as well as collaborating with faculty, senate committees, and administrators. In addition, she has experience defining and launching new technology initiatives including Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) and serving as a project leader the system-wide Banner ERP implementation team at Illinois. Dr. Bryant earned a bachelor’s degree at Butler University, a master’s degree from the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, and a PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Karen Butler-Purry is the Associate Vice-President for Graduate Studies. During her 16 years at Texas A&M University, Karen has served at all faculty levels, beginning with an initial appointment as visiting assistant professor of electrical engineering in 1994. She developed a successful research program securing over $4,000,000 in research funding as a principal investigator, and supervised and funded over 40 graduate and 65 undergraduate research students. Also she secured over $10,000,000 in fellowship or education program funding and directed several of these programs that target recruitment, retention and advancement of pre-college, college, and graduate students in STEM fields. She was Assistant Dean for Graduate Programs in the College of Engineering from 2001-2004 and Associate Department Head the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department from 2008-2010. In addition she has served in many capacities on committees for the college, university, and professional societies. She has received numerous awards in including the 2005 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Mentor Award for efforts to mentor students from underrepresented groups and for leadership in promoting PhD careers for them in electrical engineering and computer sciences.

Gail Clement is an academic/research librarian with extensive experience in scientific and grey literature publishing, copyright education,  and digital library development. She is currently an Associate Professor in the Office of Scholarly Communication at Texas A&M University Libraries where she leads the ORCID integration project and manages the Online Access to Knowledge (OAK) fund in support of OA publishing fees. In addition to her work in academic libraries, Gail has served as a research assistant and information manager in scientific research settings in the lab, field and onboard ship. Her pre-MLIS experience and skills in data management, scientific publishing, and curation of  research collections are proving invaluable to current work in the scholarly communications, e-science, data management, and digital scholarship arenas.

James Creel is Senior Lead Software Applications Developer at the Texas A&M University Library, where he supervises development of digital library and information management applications, consults with and trains customers on information management systems and models, and provides importation and curation of digital content for the TAMU institutional repository. James earned a BA in Economics and a BS in Computer Science from the University of Texas at Austin in 2003.  He went on to earn a MS in Computer Science from Texas A&M University in 2005, having studied under Thomas Ioerger.  James is pursuing a PhD in Computer Science at Texas A&M University.

Peter Flynn is Senior Application Developer, Application Services, Boston University Medical Campus IT.  With more than twenty years of programming experience in the military, government, software, and educational sectors, Peter is now involved in all aspects of web development including architecture, requirements gathering, database design, middleware, and web applications. He works primarily with Microsoft products including Visual Studio, SQL Server, and Team Foundation Server, and holds a Bachelor’s in Math from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and a Master’s in Computer Science from Boston University.

Joshua Greenberg is director of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's Digital Information Technology program. Dr. Greenberg received his Bachelor of Arts in History of Science, Medicine and Technology from the Johns Hopkins University, and both Masters and Doctoral degrees from Cornell University's Department of Science & Technology Studies. After completing his graduate work, Dr. Greenberg worked as Associate Director for Research Projects at George Mason University’s Center for History and New Media, as well as Research Assistant Professor in the University’s Department of History and Art History. At CHNM, he co-founded the Zotero project, developed and promoted ways of using the Internet to further historical research, and helped build several systems that eventually evolved into the content management platform Omeka. Immediately prior to joining the Foundation, Dr. Greenberg was the New York Public Library's first Director of Digital Strategy and Scholarship, where he developed and led a digital strategy centered on building online visitors and deepening engagement through access to collections both on Library websites and third-party platforms and increased exposure to staff expertise via blogs and other social media. He has broad experience and understanding of the content and research needs of traditional scholarly communities as well as digitally-networked services and tools to support myriad forms of public engagement and participation.

Reynold Guida leads a team responsible for the portfolio of IEEE information products.  He joined the IEEE in September 2011 after close to 15 years with Thomson Reuters where he had product management responsibilities for academic, government and corporate product offerings.  Prior to joining Thomson Reuters Reynold held product management and sales positions with The McGraw Hill Companies and Xerox Corporation.

Laure Haak is Executive Director of ORCID. Laure earned a BS and MS in Biology at Stanford University, completed her PhD in neuroscience at Stanford University Medical School, and conducted postdoctoral research at the National Institutes of Health. Following postdoctoral work, she served as editor of Science Magazine’s NextWave Postdoc Network.  Dr. Haak was a program officer for the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy at the National Academies, where she directed workforce policy studies on international students, interdisciplinary research, women faculty, postdoctoral researchers, and innovation policy. She also served as Chief Science Officer at Discovery Logic, a Thomson Reuters business, where she provided research policy expertise and managed development of research evaluation systems.

Michael Habib is Senior Product Manager for Elsevier's Scopus, where he is currently focused on altmetrics, author profiling, and Mendeley integration. He also serves as an ORCID Ambassador and on the NISO Alternative Metrics Initiative Steering Committee. Prior to joining Elsevier, he worked at the print-on-demand publisher Lulu.com. Having previously worked in both public and academic libraries and holding an MS in Library Science from UNC-Chapel Hill, Michael's background is in library services. (Twitter @habib + orcid.org/0000-0002-8860-7565)

Douglas Hahn is a Sr. IT Manager in the Digital initiative department at Texas A&M University Libraries. He has a M.S. in Library Science and over 16 years of experience working at a major university library in various technical and managerial capacities.

Keith Hazelton is Senior IT Architect at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and works half-time for Internet2 as a charter member of the NSF-funded Middleware Architecture Committee for Education (MACE) and chair of its directory working group, MACE-Dir. He concentrates on middleware infrastructure issues and is a frequent speaker and panel member at Internet2, Common Solutions Group, Educause and other venues. He has also presented at numerous international conferences including the Trans-European Research and Education Network Association (TERENA) CERNET (China Education and Research Networks) and the Japan Gigabit Networking Conference (JGN).

Robin Haw began his research career in cancer genetics, attempting to identify the BRCA1 gene as part of a Wellcome Trust Summer Studentship. After completing a B.Sc. (Hons) in Microbiology and receiving a Ph.D. in Genetics, he continued work on yeast genetics and molecular biology, studying the regulation of glycolysis and fungal pathogenicity at the NIBH, Japan. At the University of Toronto, Robin participated in the development of novel methodologies for high-throughput genetic screens and protein complex purifications. He received extensive bioinformatics training at The Blueprint Initiative, where he was a senior BIND database curator, and was responsible for managing the curation effort for the re-development of the Science Signaling’s Database of Cell Signaling. More recently, Robin managed the informatics infrastructure for a multi-institutional cancer stem cell project. Since 2009, Robin has been co-ordinating community outreach and training for the Reactome project.

Julia Hawks is VP, North America, at Symplectic where she leads North American business with a particular focus on client relationships, local initiatives, and sales and marketing strategy. Julia has been working with academic institutions around the globe since 2001 in a variety of roles centred around account management, product specialization, and training. These roles enabled Julia to gain a deep insight into the academic community, particularly the function and future of university libraries, during one of the most significant periods of their histories: the universal shift from traditional print materials to electronic resources. More recently, her focus has been on research evaluation and how technology, data, and bibliometrics can add value to research assessment exercises and institutional review. Julia grew up in the West Country of England and her years of living in the USA have not weakened her liking for tea and Cornish pasties, or her need to carry an umbrella wherever she travels.

Thorsten Hoellrigl studied Computer Science at the University of Karlsruhe. Before finalizing his doctoral thesis in 2010, he worked as research assistant for the Institute of Telematics at the University of Karlsruhe. In part of his work Dr. Hoellrigl organized and conducted IT seminars in different areas e.g. of identity and IT security management. In addition Dr. Hoellrigl was as a leading project member of an identity management project at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in which a KIT-wide identity management system was successfully designed, implemented and launched. Dr. Hoellrigl joined AVEDAS in 2011 as IT Consultant, being responsible for projects, which include the implementation of Research Management Systems. Dr. Hoellrigl is leading staff for all standardisation efforts and is author of several journal and conference articles. Since December 2013 Dr. Hoellrigl is Head of Product Development – CRIS – at Thomson Reuters and therefore responsible for the development of CONVERIS as well as the development team. Dr. Hoellrigl is a member of the Association for Informatics, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), as well as a key member in euroCRIS and CASRAI driving the standards of CERIF and CASRAI forward. Dr. Hoellrigl is currently Deputy Task Group Leader of the CERIF TG. Dr. Hoellrigl has broad experience in implementing all aspects of CONVERIS, and has been Project Manager for the implementation of CONVERIS at University of Sunderland (2012), Province of Bozen/Bolzano, Free University of Bozen/Bolzano (2012) and the Université catholique de Louvain (2013).

Kristi Holmes is the Director of Galter Health Sciences Library and an associate professor in Preventative Medicine-Health and Biomedical Informatics at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. She is the Engagement Lead for the semantic web-based discovery platform VIVO (http://vivoweb.org/) and has served on the VIVO leadership team since 2010. Dr. Holmes is a member of the Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (NUCATS) and is particularly interested in issues related to research representation and the dissemination of research findings and their resulting impact. She also happily serves as a member of the ORCID Outreach Steering Group. Dr. Holmes received her PhD in Biochemistry from Iowa State University.

Neil Jacobs is Head of Scholarly Communications at Jisc, the UK agency that supports universities and colleges in their use of digital technologies. His principal areas of interest are in open access, its implementation, and the policies, workflows, shared services and interfaces that will help. ORCID plays a key role, and Neil was responsible for convening a UK task force of national agencies that developed a consensus in support of ORCID over 2012-13.

Andrew Johnson is Assistant Professor and Research Data Librarian at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder) where he has worked since earning his MLIS from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2011. He provides research data support for CU-Boulder faculty and students, including consultation and instruction, as well as leadership in campus-wide efforts to develop research data services. Prior to joining CU-Boulder, his work primarily centered on the collection, management, and curation of data for laboratories in disciplines ranging from neuropsychology to biophotonics. His research interests focus on emerging library services and infrastructure for research data management and related areas.

Rick Johnson is the Co-Director of Digital Initiatives and Scholarship in the Hesburgh Libraries at the University of Notre Dame.  While actively collaborating with researchers on several grant funded projects, he oversees the development of research data curation and digital archiving tools.  He is also active within open source communities such as the Hydra Project and Fedora.  He has been both a code committer and technical manager for projects ranging from digital exhibits, research data curation, and institutional repositories. Before coming to the Hesburgh Libraries five years ago, he worked in the banking industry in Seattle for seven years, and spent two years in software sales and consulting in Chicago and Tokyo. He received Bachelors degrees in Computer Science and Japanese from the University of Notre Dame in 1999.

Lon Kaufman is Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at Provost at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Dr. Kaufman joined UIC in 1985 as an Assistant Professor after completing postdoctoral work at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Plant Biology in Stanford, California. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Biological Sciences in 1990 and served as the Director of Graduate Studies from 1993 to 1996. He became a full Professor in 1995, and served as Head of the Department from 1998 to 2003. His research on the regulation of gene expression, signal transduction and crop productivity has received continuous federal funding since his arrival at UIC and more recently has also received funding from the Illinois Soybean Growers Association. He served on the editorial board of the Journal of Plant Physiology from 1991 to 1993, as the President of the Midwest Society of Plant Physiologists in 1996, and as Panel Director for the Plant Growth and Development Program at USDA in 1999. He has served as Provost at UIC since 2008 after previous campus leadership roles as Vice Provost for Undergraduate Affairs and Vice Provost for Planning and Programs. 

Alix Keener, ORCID Project Manager at the University of Michigan, is a recent graduate from the University of Michigan School of Information. Alix has the responsibility for planning and executing the University’s ORCID implementation plan, including the development of marketing materials, a technical plan, and communication plan. In addition, Alix is developing a campus program to support the integration of researcher identifiers. In general, the work focuses on the creation of campus-wide ORCIDS, retrospectively and prospectively for use in UM systems. In addition to her MSI from U-M, Alix also holds BAs in English and Communication Studies from the University of Michigan.

Jared Lyle is Director of Curation Services at the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), which is responsible for Metadata, the Bibliography of Data-Related Literature, and Digital Preservation. His work includes developing and maintaining a comprehensive approach to data management and digital preservation policy at ICPSR.

Gordon MacPherson is Director, Conference Quality at the Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He leads a team dedicated to the enforcement of best practices in technical program development/peer review for IEEE's 1,400+ annual conferences. Prior to joining IEEE, Gordon served in various management roles with Dow Jones & Company, Reed Elsevier, and the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA). He began his publishing career as a proofreader/production assistant at the Research Institute of America, Inc. (now a division of Thomson Reuters). Gordon holds degrees from Fordham and Monmouth Universities, and a Certificate in Product Management from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Graduate School of Business. He lives with his family in central New Jersey.

Salvatore Mele is Head of Open Access at CERN and Strategic Director for INSPIRE, the digital library for the worldwide High-Energy Physics community. Dr. Mele leads the SCOAP3 initiative to convert High-Energy Physics journals to Open Access, through a global partnership of publishers and thousands of libraries and is an active member of the ORCID board of directors. He co-ordinates Open Access and Open Data policy studies for the European Commission and is responsible for several CERN initiatives in this field. He previously enjoyed fifteen years as a research physicist, measuring physics constants, looking for the Higgs boson (ten years too early) and searching for extra dimensions at the CERN LEP accelerator.

Scott Moore is the Director of Technology Services at the Society for Neuroscience (SfN), the world's largest organization of scientists and physicians devoted to the understanding of the brain and nervous system.  Scott has a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering and has been with SfN for over 14 years, serving in a variety of IT positions.  He now oversees a department that is responsible for maintaining SfN's business systems and developing web applications.

Ken Okaya is a Product Manager at Copyright Clearance Center. For over 6 years, Ken has driven the development of  RightsLink®, a web-based service that automates complex transactions for publishers, including author charges (i.e. APCs), licensing fees, content rental and purchases, reprints, and more.   Ken has over 20 years of experience in fast-paced technology companies, holding various product management and planning roles in companies such as EBSCO Publishing, Motorola, Dell Computer Corp, NEC, and several start-ups.  Ken holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Cornell University and has been awarded several U.S. patents.

Jim Ottaviani manages the University of Michigan's institutional repository service, Deep Blue (deepblue.lib.umich.edu), and is a member of the DSpace Community Advisory Team and the DSpace Vision Group. Prior to that he worked as a reference librarian and subject specialist for the College of Engineering and was head of reference for the Art, Architecture, and Engineering Library. He has been involved in discussions of ORCID dating back to early 2011, and chairs the University Library's ORCID Implementation Task Force. (Even though his name doesn't present a major disambiguation challenge...so far.)

Laura Paglione serves as Technical Director of ORCID. Previously as Director, Advancing Innovation at the Kauffman Foundation, Laura directed the iBridge Network, an innovation catalyst for university collaboration and technology commercialization. In prior positions at Ford Motor Company, Avid Technology, and several start-up/gazelle companies, Laura turned around, launched and led four other high-profile initiatives, the most visible of which was for Ford’s Board of Directors. Laura earned an MBA (MIT Sloan School of Management, a ScM in Computer Science (Brown University), and a BE (Stevens Institute of Technology).

Ed Pentz is the Executive Director of CrossRef, a not-for-profit membership association of publisehrs set up to provide a cross-publisher reference linking service, and is currently chair of the ORCID board of directors. Ed was appointed as CrossRef's first Executive Director when the organization was created in 2000 and Crossref has now grown to include over 4,000 organizations from all over the world. Prior to joining CrossRef, Ed held electronic publishing, editorial and sales positions at Harcourt Brace in the US and UK and managed the launch of Academic Press' first online journal the Journal of Molecular Biology, in 1995. Ed has a degree in English literature from Princeton University and currently lives in Oxford, England. 

Ann Campion Riley is the Associate Director of Libraries for Access, Collections and Technical Services at the University of Missouri, Columbia.  She is the Principal Investigator on that library’s ORCID grant received in partnership with @mire (Atmire)  for Dspace integration with ORCID.  She has worked with data management planning, repositories, metadata and other related issues, as well as library instruction, collection management and organizational development. Most recently she has presented at CNI’s fall meeting on the Great Western Library Alliance and Great Plains Network partnership on planning for research data management IMLS grant, with Deb Ludwig from the University of Kansas.  She has served on the Board of Directors of the Association of College and Research Libraries and is currently a candidate for Vice-president/President-elect of that group. She holds an MS in LIS from the University of Illinois at Urbana and an MA in English from the University of Missouri; her Ph.D. work in English was done at Saint Louis University.

Sally Rumsey, Digital Research Librarian, the Bodleian Libraries, manages the Oxford University Research Archive (ORA), a sustainable repository for research publications at the University of Oxford and is Senior Programme Manager for the University’s Open Access Oxford Programme. She is leading the Bodleian team developing data archiving services to support research data management for Oxford. She liaises with colleagues across the University on matters related to digital scholarly outputs and matters of interest to the libraries around research information management. She was previously eServices Librarian in the Library at the London School of Economics and has published a book ‘How to find information: a guide for researchers’ 2nd edition (Open University Press).

Christopher W. Shanahan, MD, MPH, FACP is a General internist with a focus in Primary Care Internal Medicine and Addiction, is Board Certified in both Internal Medicine and Addiction Medicine. He is the Faculty Lead for Research Networking for Boston University’s Clinical Translational Sciences Institute (CTSI). He has held several administrative positions including: MCHC Medical Director (1995-2001); Director and Community Medicine Unit (CMU) at BUSM (since 2002). His research focus includes: substance abuse, clinical application development, community-based research networks, and data warehousing to improve medical care quality and eliminate health disparities in underserved urban populations.

Sarah Shreeves is the Coordinator for IDEALS, a set of services and collections supporting scholarly communication (including the institutional repository) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She also serves as co-coordinator for the Scholarly Commons, a space for expert, interdisciplinary research support services and open workshops for faculty and graduate students to develop skills in areas such as digital content creation, management of research data, understanding copyright issues and author rights, and working with geospatial and numeric data. She is currently active in the next phase of development of the DMPTool and served as the co-program chair for Open Repositories 2013. Sarah regularly speaks and publishes on scholarly communication issues, institutional repositories, and on the social and technical barriers to metadata interoperability. She has served as a consultant on the Texas A&M Vireo integration project. 

Yan Shuai is associate chief editor of Tsinghua University Press (TUP) and TUP’s director of Journal Publishing. The journals published by TUP now include Tsinghua Science and Technology (English), Nano Research (English), Building Simulation (English), Journal of Advanced Ceramics (English), Friction (English), Journal of Tsinghua University (Science and Technology) (Chinese with English Abstracts), Computer Education (Chinese), Science-Technology & Publication (Chinese), Physics and Engineering (Chinese), and Chinese Birds (English), Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy (Chinese with English Abstracts), Experimental Technology and Management (Chinese with English Abstracts), Tsinghua Financial Review (Chinese), Journal of Economics (Chinese), Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences (English) . Yan has been the president of Society of China University Journals (CUJS, www.cujs.com) since 2004, and the vice president of China Periodicals Association (CPA) since August 2012. Yan has also been working for China’s Association for Science and Technology (CAST) as a member of CAST’s Committee for Academy and Society Activities.

Mary Warner is Assistant Director of the American Geophysical Union publications department, managing the business functions of AGU’s 18 journals as well as its books program, and serving as a member of the cross-functional team that developed AGU’s association management system in 2012. A chemist by training, she spent many years at the American Chemical Society as Director of Special Publications, with overall responsibility for four peer-reviewed journals and two magazines. Before joining AGU, she consulted with non-profit publishers as Content Services Group Leader at Cadmus Publisher Services, advising their staff on workflow improvement, schedule reduction, and the use of enhanced content through technology to meet their publishing objectives. She is the Chair of the Council of Science Editors Research Committee and a member of the Society for Scholarly Publishing Organizational Collaboration Committee.  

Simeon Warner is Director of the Repositories Group at Cornell University Library, and a director of ORCID. Current projects include Linked Data for Libraries (http://goo.gl/uBOz4Z), the Cornell University Library Archival Repository, the arXiv e-print archive (arxiv.org/), and Project Euclid (http://projecteuclid.org/). He was one of the developers of arXiv and his research interests include web information systems, interoperability, plagiarism detection, and open-access scholarly publishing. He has been actively involved with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) since its inception and was one of the authors of the OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, ResourceSync and IIIF specifications. He has a PhD in physics from the University of Manchester, UK.

Elaine Westbrooks serves as Associate University Librarian for Research at the University of Michigan where she has coordinated and administrated the short and long-term objectives for Michigan Library’s support of the research enterprise and data management activities since 2012. She provides operational leadership to subject specialists who represent all disciplines outside of medicine and the health sciences. Previous positions include Associate Dean of Libraries at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Head of Metadata Services at Cornell University.  She has presented her research at Dublin Core, LITA, and CNI. Westbrooks has a BA in Linguistics and a MLIS from the University of Pittsburgh.

Michael Witt is an Associate Professor of Library Science and the head of the Distributed Data Curation Center at the Purdue University Libraries. He is also the project director for the Purdue University Research Repository (http://purr.purdue.edu), leading a collaboration of the library, research office, and campus information technology in the design and implementation of an institutional data repository and supporting data services. More information about him can be found at http://www.lib.purdue.edu/research/witt.