ORCID in Publication Workflows: A Step-by-Step Guide for Publishers

Best Practice Guidelines for Publishers

By signing the Open Letter, publishers agree to conform to the following minimum standard of implementation, to ensure the collection of ORCID IDs is efficient and automated and to minimize the burden on researchers:

  1. Require. ORCID iDs are required for corresponding authors of published papers, with the understanding that ORCID iD collection should be enabled as an option for all authors and should ideally take place at submission.
  2. Collect. The collection of ORCID iDs is done via the ORCID API (authenticated ORCID iDs), meaning that authors are not asked to type in or search for their iD.
  3. Auto-update. Publisher Crossref DOI metadata is updated to include ORCID iDs for authors, so that Crossref Auto-update can be implemented. The ORCID iD DOI metadata includes the attribute indicating whether the iD was collected using the API (authenticated).
  4. Publish. Author/co-author ORCID iDs are embedded into article metadata, at least in online versions, and ideally in print versions of the publication. At a minimum the ORCID iD logo should be displayed next to the name of each author who has connected their iD; in online versions and metadata, the author name should be hyperlinked to the appropriate ORCID iD directly or via a landing page.

Guidelines

1. Applying the requirement to corresponding authors of published papers

Why? Authors should be connecting their ORCID iD to papers to enable accurate attribution and improve discoverability of their published works.

Which authors? The requirement applies at a minimum to corresponding authors. Requiring iD use by corresponding authors is a first step that will help drive adoption without unduly delaying the submission process (e.g., for large multi-authored papers where some co-authors might not be easily contacted). It is at the publisher's discretion to extend the requirement to co-authors.

When should iDs be collected? The requirement is for corresponding authors of published papers to have an ORCID iD. Applying the requirement at submission, rather than at revision or acceptance is strongly encouraged. This helps drive familiarity and adoption by more authors, as well as providing an opportunity to streamline the submission process through Single-Sign-On and/or auto-populating the submission form with data (such as preferred publication name or affiliation) from the author’s ORCID record. Several vendor submission systems support authenticated collection of ORCID iDs, including Editorial Manager, eJP, HighWire, and ScholarOne.

How? We recommend that you contact your editors and authors in advance to inform them of the upcoming requirement, ask them to register, and provide them with information about why you are doing this and how it benefits them. You should also add information on obtaining and submitting ORCID iDs to your Instructions for Authors. Some communication support resources from ORCID include this post, these fliers, this webinar recording, and this page detailing implementation steps.

In the longer term, we also encourage publishers to collect ORCID iDs for co-authors, and to integrate ORCID into review systems/processes and collect iDs from reviewers and editors so as to enable acknowledgement for peer review activities. As for authors, ORCID iDs can be used to uniquely identify reviewers, and ORCID record information, such as name, education, and current affiliation, can be used to populate reviewers' profiles in your system. Guidelines for how to do this are available from ORCID.

2. How to use the ORCID API for collecting ORCID iDs

Why? Using the API and authentication processes ensures that the ORCID iD is the author’s, that the iD is correct (e.g., no data entry typographical errors), and that the author opts into using their iD. In addition, the API enables verification through an OAuth process, so that when it is used for collecting iDs, verification becomes “baked in”, rather than an additional task for editorial staff.

How? Collecting ORCID iDs and permission to read from/write to ORCID records involves (a) prompting authors to sign into ORCID from within your system and (b) retrieving data from the ORCID registry using the ORCID API. It is important to ensure that the API is used to enable information flow, and that publishers are not allowing authors to manually copy and paste an iD into a free text field or enabling the author to search for their name in the ORCID registry. Several commercial submission systems already support ORCID API workflows, including Editorial Manager, EJournal Press, HighWire, ScholarOne, and some versions of OJS. Please do not implement the requirement until you are able to use the ORCID API.

Connect your ORCID iD button

The steps to collect an ORCID iD are detailed on the ORCID website, and start with providing a button/link on your submission form to prompt the corresponding author to connect his/her ORCID record. Questions? Please contact the ORCID support desk.

3. How to update publisher Crossref metadata and enable Crossref Auto-update

Why? Including the validated ORCID iD in your Crossref metadata deposit enables auto-update of the author’s ORCID record. This benefits researchers: they need only include their iD at manuscript submission (enter once), and grant permission to Crossref to update their record once, and then information about the published work -- with their iD -- can easily flow into connected systems, such as funder reporting systems and university repositories (re-use many times).

How? Publishers simply include the ORCID iD in their usual metadata deposits and that acts as a default “opt-in” for auto-updating ORCID records. ORCID iDs are included in Crossref deposits along with author information, for example:

<contributors>

<person_name sequence="first" contributor_role="author">

<given_name>Josiah</given_name>

<surname>Carberry</surname>

<ORCID>http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097</ORCID>

</person_name>

</contributors>

An ORCID iD may only be deposited as part of a Crossref metadata deposit. Publishers are encouraged to redeposit previous content to include ORCID iDs if they’re collecting these retrospectively. An ORCID iD may be included in deposits submitted using Crossref’s web deposit form. Please contact Crossref with any questions.

4. How to embed author/co-author ORCID iDs into finished publications

Why? Researchers want to know that their action to connect their iD with a manuscript submission or other publishing system has had an effect. Since most researchers do not look at metadata, the best way to signal that the collected iD is actually put to use is to display it in the published work. This also builds trust in scholarly communications by flagging to readers that the author has used her/his iD. A side benefit is familiarizing all authors with the ORCID iD icon so they recognize and use it next time they submit a paper. A third reason is indexing: for some systems, a manual check of the iD and author ORCID record is performed, requiring that the iD is shown in the published work.

How? ORCID welcomes and encourages community use of ORCID iDs (see guidelines for how to use the ORCID brand and trademarks and the guidelines on the display of ORCID iDs in journal articles). Aim to make the ORCID iDs readable and useful. They should be easy to find and logically placed. Ensure that each ORCID identifier is easily correlated with the appropriate author to enable source XML generating the output PDF.

Option 1, for online or print (including PDF) display: Josiah Carberry ORCID iD logo 16x16 orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097. The green ORCID iD icon and ORCID iD URL should be hyperlinked to the author’s ORCID iD. The author’s name can resolve to the author’s ORCID iD, or to an infobox or a separate page (e.g. the journal’s author profile), which displays the hyperlinked ORCID iD URI.

Option 1, for online display: Josiah Carberry ORCID iD logo 16x16. The green ORCID iD icon should be hyperlinked to the author’s ORCID iD; the name can resolve to the author’s ORCID record or to a landing page (such as the journal's author profile page) which displays the hyperlinked ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097

The hyperlink can resolve to the author’s ORCID record or to a landing page (such as the journal's author profile page) listing the hyperlinked ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097

Option 3, for print display: Josiah Carberry ORCID iD logo 16x16. To support indexing, it is advisable to include a listing of ORCID iDs in a section of the manuscript.

See the guidelines on the display of ORCID iDs in articles for examples of optimal display of ORCID iDs in common journal styles.